Immanuel Kant is one of the greatest German philosopher in the Western intellectual tradition. For the disepline of psychology, Kant presented a challenge when he insisted that the mind could not be studied in the same way that the natural sciences approched their subject matter.

Kant’s argument challenged scientists who were interested in the mind and to explore it experimentally. To meet the challenge they had to deal with Kant’s theory of how we know the word.  Kant in his book Critique if Pure Reason, approched that there are two seprate domains of reality: the noumenal world and the phenomenal world.

In the simplest sense, Kant argued that there are two different worlds. The first world is called the noumenal world, which is the world of things outside us, the world of things as they really are, the world of trees, nature, houses and things that are really real. The second world is called the phenomenal world, which is the world inside our mind.

Kant creates an unbridgeable gap between the world as it really is, the noumenal world, and the world as we perceive it, the phenomenal world inside our mind.

Kant’s theory indicated that the role of the mind in structuring our experience uses certain rules.

Why would this contention not open the door to psychological science?

Because, Kant argued, mental processes exist in time but have not spatial dimension. Means that the way the human mind works cannot be expressed mathematically. And science mathematics is the mark of true natural science, then psychology could not be a science; thus psychology can only be a histoical and descriptive discipline. Befor the end of nineteenth century, Kant’s challenges was meet by scientists who believed that they found a way to experimentally measure the mind in action.

Reviewed By: Dr. Mehrang Khazaee